2. Minami Manshu Tetsudo Kabushiki Kaisha, known as Mantetsu.
3. “The National Policy Companies [were] a characteristic feature of Japan’s wartime economic system. They were basically private (only partially government-owned) companies whose purpose was to support Japan’s national policy. From the 1930s to 1945, this focused on expanding Japan’s influence in Manchuria…. Accordingly, the National Policy Companies were primarily expected to promote industrial control, increase productivity, and facilitate the economic and political development of the occupied territories” (Otto 2002, 127).
4. Data comes from Furuichi Masako (Furuichi 2011).
5. Sang argues that the “failed modern girl” is usually a lower-class urban young woman who is seduced by the alluring images of the bourgeois Modern Girl but her attempt to ascend to middle-class status is always in vain.
6. The translation from Chinese is mine.
7. Funded by the Manchukuo government and Southern Manchurian Railway Corporation (aka. Mantetsu), the Japanese “East Indian Company” in Manchuria, Man’ei is, however, subject more to Japanese imperial power than to colonial Manchukuo. In addition, the appointment of Amakasu as the second president of Man’ei was the decision from the Ministry of General Management (Somucho) and Kwantung Army, which demonstrated the extent that Japanese imperial power influenced in Man’ei (Kobashi 2015, 136).
8. Translation of reference in text from original Japanese is mine.
9. According to David Bordwell, Sasaki Yasushi started as Ozu’s pupil in 1930 in Shochiku (Bordwell 1988, 25). [return to page 2]
10. “Since the mid-1920s, Shochiku films within the megagenre of gendai-geki have exhibited characteristics as a group that transcend or engross the personal styles of filmmakers. Critics designated this shochiku studio style ‘kamata flavor’ or ‘ofuna flavor.’” “Shochiku became the primary force in shaping the two perennially dominant gendai-geki genres of melodrama and shoshimin-geki. Both genres were excellent vehicles for conveying philosophies about suffering and happiness, tears and laughter, ideals and realities” (Anderson and Richie 1989, 244). [return to page 3]
11. According to the Regulations of Film Production (Eiga ho/Yinghua fa) enacted in 1937, the prime minister of Manchukuo has the authority to determine the content and subject of film production and he has the authority in the selection of film exhibition and distribution (cf. Article 7). The film exhibition and film distribution are subjects to the ministry of Security’s censorship (cf. Article 5) (Hu and Gu 1990, 226).
12. The EXPO in this film was Xinjing EXPO; it was part of The Great East Asian EXPO (Daitoa hakuran kai/Dadongya bolanhui) in 1942 and also was The 10th Anniversary of the Founding of Manchukuo EXPO (Jianguo shinian bolanhui). The other sites of The Great East Asian EXPO included Beijing, Harbin and Nanjing. In Nanjing, it was the Great East Asian Expo of the War.
13. “Civil society or the economy is natural to man; it is the domain where rights are exercised and individuality is expressed” but life necessity and family obligation confine women in the familial, sexual and reproductive domain(s). Inequality of gender roles is perpetuated in these sets of binary spaces. Man have the liberty to move between public and private domains, while woman can only have either or (W. Brown 1995, 155).
14. The formulation of liberty “requires the existence of encumbered beings, the social activity of those without liberty,” argues Wendy Brown, “it is achieved by displacing the embodied, encumbered, and limited nature of existence onto women” (W. Brown 1995, 154-155).
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