JUMP CUT
A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA

Notes

Acknowledgements: For helpful comments and/or encouragement, recently and in the past, I wish to thank Ira Katznelson, Stuart Klawans, and Sam Ishii-Gonzales, as well as the peer reviewers and editors of Jump Cut, especially the late Chuck Kleinhans.

1. This aspect, the most evident in the Hell section of the film, is similar to Resnais’ documentary sequences in Hiroshima Mon Amour. [return to text]

2. While there are many different types of montage in film (as well as in Godard’s opus in general and in Notre musique in particular), I emphasize in this article the notion of montage as a “bridge” between cinematic image opposites. Godard himself posits this notion implicitly in his lecture on ‘reverse shots’ in the film, and he visualizes it metaphorically in the Mostar sequence that queries the possibilities for reconciliation in Bosnia.

3. I refer here to Mary Ann Doane’s reflections upon Miriam Hansen’s interpretation of Kracauer’s film theory. See, Mary Ann Doane, "The Object of Theory," in Rites of Realism: Essays on Corporeal Cinema, ed. Ivone Margulies (Durham: Duke University Press, 2003), p. 88, Siegfried Kracauer, Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997).

4. I agree with Jeffrey Skoller who notes that the image, following Bergson, could be seen as a half way between thing and representation which "gives cinema the complex layered quality as something that indexically simulates the visible work and also have the potential to open beyond itself." Jeffrey Skoller, Shadows, Specters, Shards: Making History in Avant-Garde Film (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005), p. XXI. I opted for the term representations which seemed to me closer to Godard's engagement with, and critique of, the moving image, its production of historical knowledge, and its archival role of "preserving [and coming to terms with] the horrors of the world" (Daniel Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), p. 185. This concept is, I hope, sufficiently broad to include Godard's notion that the function of cinema is to be "truer than life"; Godard seeks not to represent but to transfigure reality (Michael Witt, Jean-Luc Godard, cinema historian (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2013), p. 26.

Godard's move away from indexicality is discussed by Daniel Morgan who argues that in Histoire(s) du cinéma Godard posits that "cinema needs to learn how to think about history and to do so without drawing on the guarantee that photographic indexicality provides" (Ibid., p. 166). But Morgan also cites Wright who argued that Godard’s work is concerned with the "sublime recognition of the impossibility of doing justice to reality"; "the absence ... haunts every film image, i.e. the traumatic kernel of the Real" (Ibid., p. 181). I analyse "traumatic kernel of the Real" here in the context of Notre musique's cinema of an (im)possibility of reconciliation.

5. Cinematic experience is thus linked to the social forces in which it is produced. The role of Brechtian spectatorship is crucial here as the spectator is not a mere observer but possesses a capacity for action. Cited in Shadows, Specters, Shards, p. XXI.

6. Mary Ann Doane, The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency, the Archive (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.), pp. 2-3, 22, 30.

7. Ibid., p. 107.

8. Miriam Hansen, Cinema and experience: Siegfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin, and Theodor W. Adorno (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012), p. 38.

9. Ibid., p. 39.

10. Cited in Doane, The Emergence of Cinematic Time, p. 4.

11. Bruce Bennett, "The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency, the Archive" [book review] Screen, Winter 2004, Vol. 45, No. 4, p. 464.
 
12. Hansen, Cinema and experience, p. 18.

13. Ibid., p. 9.

14. Gertrud Koch, Siegfried Kracauer: An Introduction (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000), pp. 104, 106 [italics in the original].

15. Daniel Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013), p. 152.

16. Ibid., p. 167.

17. Ibid., p. 178.

18. Hansen, Cinema and experience, p. IX; see also 255.

19. Ibid., p. 5.

20. Ibid., p. 6.

21. Ibid., p. 6.

22. Koch, Siegfried Kracauer, p. 113.

23. Hansen, Cinema and experience, p. 10.

24. Ibid., p. 12-13, 15.

25. Ibid., p. 258.

26. Ibid., p. 257.

27. Koch, Siegfried Kracauer, p. 107.

28. Robert A. Rosenstone, Visions of the Past: The Challenge of Film to Our Idea of History (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995).

29. Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003), p. 68. <https://monoskop.org/images/a/a6/Sontag_Susan_2003_
Regarding_the_Pain_of_Others.pdf>

30. Insdorf questions Kracauer’s view expressed in the previous sentence. See, Annette Insdorf, Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust, 3rd ed. (Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p. xviii.

31. Jeffrey Skoller, Shadows, Specters, Shards: Making History in Avant-Garde Film (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005).

32. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 11.

33. Benjamin de Carvalho and Andreas Behnke, "Shooting War: International Relations and the Cinematic Representation of Warfare," Millenium: Journal of International Studies 34, no. 3 (2006): p. 935.

34. Quoted in Insdorf, Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust, p. 280.

35. Robert Stam, Reflexivity in Film and Literature: From Don Quixote to Jean-Luc Godard, Morningside ed. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992), p. 177-79.

36. See, Doane, "The Object of Theory."

37. See Chapter One in Skoller, Shadows, Specters, Shards: Making History in Avant-Garde Film.

38. Skoller, Shadows, Specters, Shards, p. XV.

39. Ibid., p. XV, XVI.

40. Ibid., p. XIX.

41. Ibid., p. XX.

42. Ibid., p. XXXIV.

43. Ibid., p. XXXVI.

44. Ibid., p. XXXIV.

45. See the following:

46. Daniel Morgan stresses as well that, according to Godard, cinema failed to make properly understood the events of the 1930s and failed to record the Holocaust (See, Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema, pp. 168, 179).

47. This is most clearly revealed in a number of explicitly political films that Godard made in the late 1960s and early 1970s in collaboration with Jean-Pierre Gorin, as a member of the radical Dziga Vertov group—arguably, not Godard’s strongest artistic phase. Indeed, recognizing this, Godard has offered a gender-conscious, and in part more politically savvy, corrective in Ici et ailleurs and especially in Numéro deux (1975). Ici et ailleurs credits Miéville as one of the makers, and Numéro Deux is especially linked to her creative presence in their work at this stage, her bringing her daughter into the household arrangement, etc. (I thank the editor for this note). In the latter film which focuses on labor and family, the narrator (Sandrine Battistella) condemns “the masculine perversion of violence [as] the fundamental factor in a woman’s degradation.” This is followed by intertitles that flash the words MUSIQUE, POLITIQUE, HISTOIRE, CINEMA.

48. Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema, pp. 179-180.

49. Cited in Ibid., p. 180.

50. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 66.

51. Ibid., p. 91.

52. More recently, Coppola’s anti-war film has seen a horrid revival in Anthony Swofford’s well publicized memoir turned into a screenplay for the film Jarhead (2005). Swofford, a Marine sniper veteran in the Gulf War depicted the Valkyrie sequence of Apocalypse Now as a form of “military pornography,” a powerful set of visuals used to at once desensitize solders for warfare and to arouse them to the state of preparedness for mass-slaughter. See, Manohla Dargis, "Behind Foreign Lines," New York Times Magazine (2005), Lawrence Weschler, "Valkyries over Iraq: The Trouble with War Movies," Harper's Magazine, November 2005 2005, pp. 65-67, 69.

53. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 63.

54. Weschler, for example, cites Samuel Fuller’s sarcastic remark that for the reality of war to be evoked truthfully, “bullets would need to be spraying out from the screen, taking out members of the audience at random, one by one, in scattershot carnage.” Weschler, "Valkyries over Iraq: The Trouble with War Movies," p. 77.

55. Mark Peranson, "Notre Musique," Cineaste 30, no. 2 (2005): p. 54.

56. For example, what is the extent of cinema’s capacity to record and reflect upon images of utmost horror? How meaningful are these representations to modern audiences desensitized by constant televised coverage of human suffering? How can (Western) cinema construct the meaning of transnational reconciliation to address its prior silences and its retreat in the face of the spectacular powers of Hollywood and global media?

57. See, Guy Debord, Comments on the Society of the Spectacle (London ; New York: Verso, 1990), Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle (New York: Zone Books, 1994).

58. Godard has used these techniques to challenge other mainstream genre forms (for instance, in his well-known films, À bout de souffle (1960), Vivre sa vie (1962), Alphaville, une étrange aventure de Lemmy Caution (1965)), and decades ago, in Les Carabiniers, he applied them to shoot down mainstream war film.

59. David Sterritt, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible, Cambridge Film Classics (Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. 16-17.

60. Stam, Reflexivity in Film and Literature: From Don Quixote to Jean-Luc Godard, p. 193. [return to page 2]

61. Les Carabiniers, it should be noted, presents an insightful critique, much ahead of its time, of the role of image-driven culture in the sequence in which Ulysses and Michael-Ange bring home a war booty of photographs, or in the depiction of Micheal-Ange’s first cinema experience.

62. Leslie Hill, ""A Form That Thinks": Godard, Blanchot, Citation," in For Ever Godard, ed. James S. Williams, Michael Temple, and Michael Witt (London: Black Dog, 2004), p. 415.

63. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 70.

64. Richard Brody, Everything is cinema: the working life of Jean-Luc Godard (New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt & Co., 2008), p. 517.

65. Ibid., p. 511.

66. Ibid., p. 512.

67. See, Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema, p. 170.

68. See, Jean Luc Godard, John O'Toole, and James McNeill Whistler, Jean-Luc Godard: The Future(S) of Film: Three Interviews 2000-01 (Bern: Verlag Gachnang & Springer AG, 2002).

69. This scene, of course, contrasts with the previous sequence in For Ever Mozart that highlights commercial pressures under which cinema operates.

70. Brody, Everything is Cinema, p. 588.

71. She is played by Francoise Verny, an editor at Galliard. According to Godard, she was "one of the queens of Paris literary production, a bit like Lucie Aubrac was a queen of the Resistance" (cited in Ibid., 599).

72. Cited in Ibid., p. 603.

73. Ibid., p. 603-604.

74. Deleuze and Boundas, The Deleuze Reader, p. 174.

75. Brody, Everything is cinema, p. 596.

76. Williams, "European Culture and Artistic Resistance in Histoire(s) du Cinéma Chapter 3a, La Monnaie De L’absolu," p. 133.

77. This is in part an answer to Bazin’s quest. Indeed, Bazin’s influence on Godard is significant as much as Godard has asserted that “[t]he only reality in a film is the reality of in its own making.” Quoted in Insdorf, Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust, p. 280.

78. This is indeed more of a question than an answer to Kracauer’s theoretical concepts. Mel Gibson’s The Passion of the Christ (2004) might provide another particularly polemical example. The endorsement of the cinema of empathetic engagement and especially the cinema of often artificial “redemption,” thus has to be approached with caution. That is, we could ask Kracauer today, how can we be certain that what art attempting to “cutting off” is in fact “Medusa’s head?” Even if we might not see this aspect as Godard’s predominant quest, his war films pose critical questions in the on-going dialogue regarding cinema’s historical potentials.

79. Thus I would suggest that even the most reflexive cinema can never be as “pure” as Godard would sometime seem to prefer it.

80. This argument builds on Miriam Hansen’s interpretations of Kracauer’s film theory. See, Doane, "The Object of Theory," p. 88.

81. Also quoted in Wheeler Winston Dixon, "For Ever Godard: Notes of Godard’s For Ever Mozart," Literature/Film Quarterly 26, no. 2 (1998): p. 85.

82. Notre musique was initially supposed to be a film about EMC records; Godard abandoned the idea, focusing instead on the dramatization of the novel Le Silence de la mer by Vercours written in 1943 (filmed by Jen-Pierre Melville in 1947), a story of France under German occupation. Then, however, he decided to make a film about the conflict in the Middle East. At the same time, he was invited by Francis Beub, the director of the Center André-Malraux in Bosnia to participate in Sarajevo "Recountres Européens du Livre" — visits to Sarajevo helped shape the film. Brody, Everything is cinema, p. 616.

83. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 88.

84. Brody, Everything is cinema, p. 623

85. For a contrasting view, see chapter on Notre musique in Brody, Everything is cinema.

86. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 30.

87. Brody, Everything is cinema, p. 618

88. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 69. [return to p. 3]

89. Ibid., pp. 97, 89.

90. Georgio Agamben, Remnants of Auschwitz: the witness and the archive (New York: Zone Books, 1999), p. 148.

91. Susan Sontag, "Looking at War" The New Yorker, December 9, 2002. See, <https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/12/09/looking-at-war>

92. Deleuze and Boundas, The Deleuze Reader, p. 174.

93. Trond Lundemo, "The Index and Erasure: Godard’s Approach to Film History," in For Ever Godard, ed. James S. Williams, Michael Temple, and Michael Witt (London: Black Dog, 2004), p. 380.

94. Paul Virilio, War and Cinema: The Logistics of Perception (London ; New York: Verso, 1989), pp. 1-10.

95. Godard was referring to For Ever Mozart. Quoted in Dixon, "For Ever Godard: Notes of Godard’s for Ever Mozart," p. 85.

96. See Morgan on Eisenstein in the context of Godard's cinema. Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema, p.182.

97. Agamben, Remnants of Auschwitz, p. 13.

98. Ibid., p. 158 [italics in the original].

99. Cited in Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 22.

100. Ibid., p. 33.

101. In contrast to geometric spaces. See, Deleuze and Boundas, The Deleuze Reader, p. 176.

102. Quoted in Sterritt, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible, p. 263.

103. Cited in Matthew Longo, The Politics of Borders: Sovereignty, Security, and the Citizen after 9/11 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017) pp. XIII-XIV.

104. Nadia Abu-Zahra, “IDs and territory: population control for resource expropriation” in Cowen, Deborah, and Emily Gilbert. eds. War, Citizenship, Territory (New York: Routledge, 2008), p. 305.

105. Ibid., p. 315.

106. Ibid., p. 320.

107. See, Steven Lukes, Power: A Radical View (New York and London: Macmillan, 1974).

108. See, Stephen Graham, Cities, War, and Terrorism: Towards an Urban Geopolitics (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004).

109. Eyal Weizman, “Thanatotacics” in Sorkin, Michael. ed. Indefensible Space: The Architecture of the National Insecurity State (New York: Routledge, 2008), p. 326. See also,
See also, Eyal Weizman, Hollow Land: Israel's Architecture of Occupation (London: Verso, 2007).

110.. Sterritt, The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible, p. 262.

111. Wim Wenders, The Act of Seeing: Essays and Conversations (London ; Boston: Faber and Faber, 1997), p. 169.

112. Fredrik Barth, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference, Scandinavian University Books (Bergen, London: Universitetsforlaget; Allen & Unwin, 1969), pp. 15, 10.

113. Ibid., p. 15.

114. Longo, The Politics of Borders, p. XII.

115. Ibid., p. XV.

116. Ibid., p. 23-24.

117. Ibid., p. 40.

118. John Lewis Gaddis, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 5. [return to page 4]

119. Williams states that in Godard’s films, “montage—or the act of creating relations between people, objects and ideas—is, of itself, a form of history, indeed, ... montage and history are the same process.” Williams, "European Culture and Artistic Resistance in Histoire(S) Du Cinéma Chapter 3a, La Monnaie De L’absolu," p. 126.

120. Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema, p. 163.

121. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, pp. 77-78.

122. See, Richard and Raymond Durgnat Combs, "Chapter and Verse," Film Comment 41, no. 1 (2005).

123. I thank the editor for this point.

124. See, Brody, Everything is cinema, p. 619. Andrew Sarris has observed, "In Notre musique, Mr. Godard talks about Jews as if they'd emerged triumphantly from the death camps to promptly drive the Palestinians out of their homeland... I am frankly surprised that most of my colleagues haven't see through Mr. Godard's evasive paradoxes, the banal anti-"Zionist"/anti-American prejudices that he shares with his countrymen, whether French or Swiss." Cited in Ibid., p. 624. Brody finds in Godard's statements that "[h]is expressions of sympathy for the Jews killed in the Holocaust were interwoven with expressions of disdain for the Jews not killed in the Holocaust" (Ibid., p. 559). See also Bernard-Henri Levy's comment on Godard (Cited in Ibid., p. 587).

125. Peranson, "Notre Musique," p. 55.

126. Doane, "The Object of Theory," p. 87.

127. Susan Woodward, Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War (Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, 1995), p. 20.

128. Sontag, "Looking at War." See, <https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/12/09/looking-at-war>

129. Susan Sontag on Charlie Rose. Wednesday 08/02/1995. <https://charlierose.com/videos/15694>

130. Susan Sontag, "Godot Comes to Sarajevo," The New York Review of Books, October 21, 1993. See, <http://www.nybooks.com/articles/1993/10/21/godot-comes-to-sarajevo/>

131. Neven Andjelic, "Post-Yugoslav Cinema and Politucs: Films, Lies and Video Tape," International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention, Vol. 6, no. 2, February 2017, p. 75.

132. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 87.

133. See, Mirjana Ristic, "'Sniper Alley': The Politics of Urban Violence in the Besieged Sarajevo" Built Environment Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 342-356.

134. Stephen Graham, Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism (London and New York: Verso, 2010), p. 17.

135. See, Dzevad Karahasan, Sarajevo: exodus of a city (Kodansha USA Inc, 1994).

136. "Being a spectator of calamities taking place in [...] other country is a quintessential modern experience, the cumulative offering by more than a century and a half's worth of those professional, specialized tourists known as journalists." Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 17.

137. On Balkanism and film. See, Vojislava Filipcevic, "Historical Narrative and The East-West Leitmotif in Milcho Manchevski's Before the Rain and Dust," Film Criticism, Volume 29, Number 2, Winter 2004/2005, pp. 3-5. See also, Vangelis Calotychos, “Born To Be Wild?: Repetition Compulsion, Agency, And ‘The Lessons Of History' in Three Balkan Films (Angelopoulos, Kusturica, Manchevski)” [conference paper] Balkan Literatures of Dissent, Brown University, April 20. 2007.

138. Nevena Dakovic, "The Threshold of Europe: Imagining Yugoslavia in Film," Space of Identity, Vol. 1 No. 1 (2001). See, <http://soi.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/soi/article/view/8056/7237>.

139. Cited and discussed in Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema, p. 193.

140. Pavle Levi, Disintegration in frames: aesthetics and ideology in the Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav cinema (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007), p. 5.

141. See, Dina Iordanova, Cinema of Flames: Balkan Film, Culture and the Media (London: British Film Institute, 2001).

142. Ivana Kronja, “Social horror”: A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Poetic Function of the Motive of Victim in the Contemporary Serbian Film," TEMIDA 2016.

143. See, Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, pp. 18-19.

144. Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media (London ; New York: Routledge, 1994), p. 205.

145. I thank the editor for this point.

146. In Danis Tanović’s Oscar-winning No Man’s Land, an overzealous British reporter pursues a sensationalist story of a Bosnian and a Serbian solider stuck in a trench along with another solider lying on a mine that will detonate if he is removed. In Michael Winterbottom’s promotional Welcome to Sarajevo, the heroes/rescuers are in fact the Western media professionals. The main character is a journalist whose consciousness is haunted by an image of a Bosnian boy shouting, “Why are you staring at us? What are you seeking?” In Michael Haneke’s intriguing Code Unknown, a photographer who has just returned to Paris from a post in Kosovo, where his photographs documented the ethnic cleansing of 1999, roams the subways and streets in search of anything real or tangible. He takes clandestine photos of the unguarded facial expressions of Parisian passers-by.

147. Judith interviews the French ambassador Naville ("Godard's maternal grandparents maiden name" (Brody, Everything is Cinema, p. 618) in Sarajevo (who sheltered her family during World War Two), who tells her, citing a German Catholic woman murdered in 1943, “the goal of the state is to be one, of the person to be two.” She talks to the Palestinian poet Darwich, who tells her “we are fortunate to have Israel as an enemy.... the world is interested in you, not in us.”

148. I thank the editor for this point.

149. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 75.

150. Witt, Jean-Luc Godard, cinema historian, pp. 2-3.

151. This is a premise behind Godard’s Historie(s) de cinema. See, Lundemo, "The Index and Erasure: Godard’s Approach to Film History."

152. Sontag, "Looking at War." See, <https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/12/09/looking-at-war>
[return to page 152]

153. After the screening of the film at the New York Film Festival in October 2004, Sarah Adler told the audience that Godard’s team shot the Purgatory portion of film in three weeks, that the script set firm guidelines, that there was no improvisation. As is often the case with Godard’s films, the spontaneity is carefully planned and built-in.

154. Email correspondence with Stuart Klawans. November 2017.

155. Brody, Everything Is Cinema, p. 619.

156. As J. Hoberman observed, “the process [of rebuilding the Mostar bridge] which involves painstakingly labeling and reassembling every stone salvaged from the river, suggests old-fashioned editing.” See, J. Hoberman, "C’est La Guerre," Artforum 43, no. 1 (2004).

157. Witt, Jean-Luc Godard, cinema historian, p. 27. See also, Sam Ishii-Gonzales, "Jean-Luc Godard, Cinema Historian by Michael Witt" [book review], Film Quarterly, Vol. 67 No. 3, Spring 2014, pp. 89-90.

158. Klawans, "Godard's Inferno."

159. On ethnic boundaries and regional political instability, see also Barth, Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference, pp. 36-37.

160. Frédéric Bonnaud, "Occupational Hazards," Film Comment 41, no. 1 (2005).

161. Koch, Siegfried Kracauer, p. 117.

162. Ibid., p. 115.

163. Ibid., pp. 116, 120.

164. Cited in Brody, Everything Is Cinema, p. 622.

165. Michael Witt writes "Her shifting roles with Godard in their post-Sonimage work testifies to the endurance of their collaboration and her absolute centrality within it: she co-wrote and co-edited Sauve qui peut (la vie) (1979), collaborated on Scénario du film Passion (1983)m write the script for Prénom Carmen (1982), co-edited Je vous salue, Marie (1983), co-wrote Détective (1984), co-directed and appeared in Soft and hard (1985), co-produced Le Dernier mot (1989), co-directed Le Rapport Darty (1989), is credited as art director on Nouvelle vague (1990), co-wrote and co-directed L'Enfance de l'art (1991), co-wrote and co-directed Pour Thomas Wainggai (1991), and co-wrote and co-directed Deux fois cinquante ans de cinéma francais (1995)" Michael Witt, "On communication: the work of Anne-Marie Mieville and Jean-Luc Godard as 'Sonimage' from 1973 to 1979" [unpublished dissertation] (University of Bath, 1998), p. 9.

166. Brody, Everything Is Cinema, p. 619.

167. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, pp. 12-13.

168. Deleuze and Boundas, The Deleuze Reader, p. 178.

169. Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others, p. 95.

170. Niels Niessen, "Access denied: Godard Palestine representation" Cinema Journal, Vol. LII, no. 2, 2013, p. 2.

171. Doane, "The Object of Theory," p. 85.

172. See also, Susan Sontag, "Godard," in A Susan Sontag Reader, ed. Cynthia Krupat (New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1982).

173. Brody, Everything Is Cinema, p. 625.

174. Of course, the ending also does make sense from the point of view of Godard’s cinema. As critics have elucidated, the Heaven sequence includes a beautiful tracking shot, effortless yet somehow also daring, that represents an homage to François Truffaut's Fahrenheit 451. Heaven, it seems, is also a universe in which believers and nonbelievers alike will be watching better movies (so many by Godard are included in this category), perhaps even in a digital format. See, Combs, "Chapter and Verse," Klawans, "Godard's Inferno."

175. Morgan, Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema, p. XII.

176. Longo, The Politics of Borders, p. 42.

Works cited

Abu-Zahra, Nadia, “IDs and territory: population control for resource expropriation” in Deborah Cowen and Emily Gilbert. eds. War, Citizenship, Territory. New York: Routledge, 2008. pp. 303-326.

Agamben, Georgio. Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and The Archive. New York: Zone Books, 1999.

Barth, Fredrik. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Culture Difference, Scandinavian University Books. Bergen, London,: Universitetsforlaget; Allen & Unwin, 1969.

Behnke, Andreas and Benjamin de Carvalho. "Shooting War: International Relations and the Cinematic Representation of Warfare." Millenium: Journal of International Studies 34, no. 3 (2006).

Bennett, Bruce. "The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency, the Archive" [book review] Screen, Winter 2004, Vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 461-466.

Bonnaud, Frédéric. "Occupational Hazards." Film Comment 41, no. 1 (2005)

Brody, Richard. Everything is cinema: the working life of Jean-Luc Godard. New York: Metropolitan Books/Henry Holt & Co., 2008.

Calotychos, Vangelis. “Born To Be Wild?: Repetition Compulsion, Agency, And ‘The Lessons Of History' in Three Balkan Films (Angelopoulos, Kusturica, Manchevski)” [conference paper] Balkan Literatures of Dissent, Brown University, April 20. 2007.

Combs, Richard and Raymond Durgnat. "Chapter and Verse." Film Comment 41, no. 1 (2005).

Dakovic, Nevena."The Threshold of Europe: Imagining Yugoslavia in Film" Space of Identity, Vol. 1 No. 1 (2001). See, <http://soi.journals.yorku.ca/index.php/soi/article/view/8056/7237>.

Dargis, Manohla. "Behind Foreign Lines." New York Times Magazine (2005).

Debord, Guy. Comments on the Society of the Spectacle. London ; New York: Verso, 1990.

———. The Society of the Spectacle. New York: Zone Books, 1994.

Deleuze, Gilles, and Constantin V. Boundas. The Deleuze Reader. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Dixon, Wheeler Winston "For Ever Godard: Notes of Godard’s for Ever Mozart." Literature/Film Quarterly 26, no. 2 (1998).

Doane, Mary Ann. The Emergence of Cinematic Time: Modernity, Contingency, the Archive. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Doane, Mary Ann. "The Object of Theory." In Rites of Realism: Essays on Corporeal Cinema, edited by Ivone Margulies, x, 347. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

Filipcevic, Vojislava. "Historical Narrative and The East-West Leitmotif in Milcho Manchevski's Before the Rain and Dust," Film Criticism, Volume 29, Number 2, Winter 2004/2005, pp. 3-33

Gaddis, John Lewis. The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Godard, Jean Luc, John O'Toole, and James McNeill Whistler. Jean-Luc Godard: The Future(S) of Film: Three Interviews 2000-01. Bern: Verlag Gachnang & Springer AG, 2002.

Graham, Stephen. Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism. London and New York: Verso, 2010.

Graham, Stephen. Cities, War, and Terrorism: Towards an Urban Geopolitics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2004.

Hansen, Miriam. Cinema and experience: Siegfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin, and Theodor W. Adorno. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012.

Hill, Leslie. ""A Form That Thinks": Godard, Blanchot, Citation." In For Ever Godard, edited by James S. Williams, Michael Temple and Michael Witt, 461. London: Black Dog, 2004.

Hoberman, J. "C’est La Guerre." Artforum 43, no. 1 (2004).

Hori, Junji. "Godard’s Two Historiographies." In For Ever Godard, edited by James S. Williams, Michael Temple and Michael Witt, 461. London: Black Dog, 2004.

Insdorf, Annette. Indelible Shadows: Film and the Holocaust. 3rd ed. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Iordanova, Dina. Cinema of Flames: Balkan Film, Culture and the Media. London: British Film Institute, 2001.

Ishii-Gonzales, Sam. "Jean-Luc Godard, Cinema Historian by Michael Witt" [book review], Film Quarterly, Vol. 67 No. 3, Spring 2014, pp. 89-90.

Karahasan, Dzevad. .Sarajevo: exodus of a city. Kodansha USA Inc, 1994.

Klawans, Stuart. "Godard's Inferno." The Nation, December 20 2004.

Koch, Gertrud. Siegfried Kracauer: An Introduction. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Kracauer, Siegfried. Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Kronja, Ivana. “Social horror”: A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Poetic Function of the Motive of Victim in the Contemporary Serbian Film," TEMIDA 2016.

Levi, Pavle. Disintegration in frames: aesthetics and ideology in the Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav cinema. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2007.

Lukes, Steven. Power: A Radical View. New York and London: Macmillan, 1974.

Matthew Longo, The Politics of Borders: Sovereignty, Security, and the Citizen after 9/11. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Lundemo, Trond. "The Index and Erasure: Godard’s Approach to Film History." In For Ever Godard, edited by James S. Williams, Michael Temple and Michael Witt, 461. London: Black Dog, 2004.

MacCabe, Colin, and Sally Shafto. Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy. 1st American ed. New York: Farrar Strauss and Giroux, 2004.

Morgan, Daniel. Late Godard and the possibilities of cinema. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.

Niels Niessen, "Access denied: Godard Palestine representation," Cinema Journal, Vol. LII, no. 2, 2013.

Peranson, Mark. "Notre Musique." Cineaste 30, no. 2 (2005).

Ranciere, Jacques. "Godard, Hitchcock, and the Cinematographic Image." In For Ever Godard, edited by James S. Williams, Michael Temple and Michael Witt, 461. London: Black Dog, 2004.

Ristic, Mirjana. "'Sniper Alley': The Politics of Urban Violence in the Besieged Sarajevo" Built Environment Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 342-356.

Rosenstone, Robert A. Visions of the Past: The Challenge of Film to Our Idea of History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995.

Saxton, Libby. "Anamnesis and Bearing Witness: Godard/Lanzmann." In For Ever Godard, edited by James S. Williams, Michael Temple and Michael Witt, 461. London: Black Dog, 2004.

Shohat, Ella, and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media. London ; New York: Routledge, 1994.

Skoller, Jeffrey. Shadows, Specters, Shards: Making History in Avant-Garde Film. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.

Sontag, Susan. "Godard." In A Susan Sontag Reader, edited by Cynthia Krupat, xv, 446. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1982.

Sontag, Susan. "Godot Comes to Sarajevo," The New York Review of Books, October 21, 1993. See, <http://www.nybooks.com/articles/1993/10/21/godot-comes-to-sarajevo/>

Sontag, Susan. "Looking at War" The New Yorker, December 9, 2002. See, <https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/12/09/looking-at-war>

Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003. <https://monoskop.org/images/a/a6/Sontag_Susan_2003_
Regarding_the_Pain_of_Others.pdf>

Stam, Robert. Reflexivity in Film and Literature: From Don Quixote to Jean-Luc Godard. Morningside ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

Sterritt, David. The Films of Jean-Luc Godard: Seeing the Invisible, Cambridge Film Classics. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

———. Notre Musique: An Essay: Wellspring Media, Inc., 2005.

Virilio, Paul. War and Cinema: The Logistics of Perception. London ; New York: Verso, 1989.

Weizman, Eyal. “Thanatotacics” in Michael Sorkin, ed. Indefensible Space: The Architecture of the National Insecurity State. New York: Routledge, 2008, pp. 325-350.

Weizman, Eyal. Hollow Land: Israel's Architecture of Occupation. London: Verso, 2007.

Wenders, Wim. The Act of Seeing: Essays and Conversations. London ; Boston: Faber and Faber, 1997.

Weschler, Lawrence. "Valkyries over Iraq: The Trouble with War Movies " Harper's Magazine, November 2005 2005, 65-77.

Williams, James S. "European Culture and Artistic Resistance in Histoire(S) Du Cinéma Chapter 3a, La Monnaie De L’absolu." In The Cinema Alone: Essays on the Work of Jean-Luc Godard, 1985-2000, edited by Michael Temple and James S. Williams, 269. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2000.

Witt, Michael. Jean-Luc Godard, cinema historian. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2013.

Michael Witt, "On communication: the work of Anne-Marie Mieville and Jean-Luc Godard as 'Sonimage' from 1973 to 1979" [unpublished dissertation] University of Bath, 1998.

Woodward, Susan. Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War. Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution, 1995.