1. While Marshall mentions a miscarriage, the film explicitly, and scandalously for the time, mentions abortion: Before his disappearance at the end of the film, “Claude” borrows a large sum of money and gives it to Johanne to use for an abortion or for the child’s education. [Return to page 1]

1a. See Lever, 77. Lever himself shares this assessment of “the complete irrelevance [décrochage] to the Quebec collective real”, 78.

2. The Time-Image, 250. “Series are the expressions of forces through which the body transforms itself and through which I becomes other … the series takes up the body in an image where disparate spaces overlap without resolving into a totality or whole” (Rodowick, 168).

3. Arcand, “Cinéma et sexualité.”

4. Cinéastes du Québec 4: Claude Jutra, 17.

5. Tom Waugh underlines the fact that A tout prendre was made "six years before Stonewall": "Nègres blancs, tapettes et ‘butch’".

6. See my discussion of Les Nuits fauves in Alderson and Anderson.

7. [In Quebec the term voyageurs refers to the legendary French Canadians who transported furs by canoe during the fur trade of the 18th and early 19th centuries. There is a certain romanticism around the legend of the voyageurs who adopted a nomadic lifestyle. The tension between the voyageur and the sédentaire evokes a sharp (and gendered) contrast between the romantic nomadic figures and the sedentary settler population of Nouvelle France [New France] (the name given the French colony that would later become the Canadian province of Quebec).]

8. [According to popular lore, the “revenge of the cradles” refers to high birthrates among French Canadians encouraged by the Catholic Church and a francophone elite as a form of resistance to English colonization from the 1870s until 1941.]
[return to page 2]

9. Sartre’s play, however, evokes a situation in which the characters, being dead, are no longer able to make choices, to alter the choices they made, or, because of their interrelations, establish systems of denial.

10. In The Time-Image, 60-4, Deleuze, following Alain Masson’s work on the musical (La Comédie musicale), analyses the transition from narrative to the spectacular or “implied dream” with the possibility of return, but he also points out that such a transition can call into question the concreteness of the “normal” narrative world, so that we go from the “spectacular” to the “spectacle,” the “dream” element enveloping both or all worlds. This latter view is consistent with the strange temporal and narrative relations of Jutra’s film, but here, of course, the musical sequence is an extension of the misery containing it, not something giving life back to the everyday. 

11. This term evokes independent entrepreneurial French-Canadian woodsman who traveled in New France and the interior of North America, usually to trade European goods with First Nations people in exchange for furs. The coureur de bois [runner of the woods] was often a solitary figure, while the legendary voyageurs transported furs across great distances as part of the large-scale, licensed and organized fur trade.]

12. A series of 24 films for young people produced by Rock Demers between 1970 and 2014, including the 1984 hit La guerre des tuques [The Dog who Stopped the War]. See Marshall’s Quebec National Cinema, 115-119.

Works cited

Arcand, Denys. “Cinéma et sexualité.” Parti-pris nos. 9-11, summer 1964, pp. 90-7.

Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London, Routledge, 1990.

Brady, James. "A tout prendre: fragments du corps spéculaire." Copie zéro no. 37, 1988, pp. 23-26.

Cinéastes du Québec 4: Claude Jutra. Conseil québécois pour la diffusion du cinéma, 1970.

Deleuze, Gilles. Cinema 2: The Time-Image. Translated by H. Tomlinson and R. Galeta, Athlone Press, 1989.

Deleuze, Gilles and Félix Guattari. “1440: The Smooth and the Striated”, A Thousand Plateaus. Translated by Brian Massumi, Athlone Press, 1988, pp. 475-500.

Hocquenghem, Guy. Homosexual Desire. Translated by Daniella Dangoor, Duke University Press, 1993.

Jean, Marcel. Le Cinéma québécois. Boréal, 1991.

Létourneau, Jocelyn. “La mise en intrigue. Configuration historico-linguistique d’une grève célébrée : Asbestos, P.Q., 1959.” Recherches sémiotiques nos. 1-2, 1992, pp. 53-71.

Lever, Yves. Le Cinéma de la revolution tranquille de Panoramique à Valérie. Y. Lever, 1991.

Lockerbie, Ian. “Regarder la mort en face.” Ciné-Bulles 15, no. 2, summer 1996, pp. 44-9.

Marshall, Bill. "The nation-popular and comparative gay identities : Cyril Collard’s Les Nuits fauves." Territories of desire in queer culture: refiguring contemporary boundaries, edited by David Alderson and Linda R. Anderson, Manchester University Press, 2000, pp. 84-95.

Rodowick, David. Gilles Deleuze’s Time Machine. Duke University Press, 1997.

Waugh, Tom. "Nègres blancs, tapettes et "butch"". Copie zéro no. 11, 1981, pp. 12-29.

Weinmann, Heinz. Cinéma de l’imaginaire Québécois. l’Hexagone, 1990.