1. With the exceptions of scholars like Alexandra Juhasz, Roger Hallas, Chuck Kleinhans, John Hess, Bill Nichols, Julia Lesage, Tom Waugh, and Faye Ginsburg, most of the work on community or alternative media organizations has been the domain of the more radical wing of communications studies in the work of John Downing, Kevin Howley, Leah Lievrouw, Manual Castells, Chris Atton, and Clemencia Rodriguez. [return to text]
2. Chuck Kleinhans and Julia Lesage raised these important issues about careerism amongst younger practitioners in radical media groups and about the relations between oppositional media groups and other kinds of political organizing that takes more time than simply documenting a demonstration or an action.
3. Paper Tiger Television, started in 1981 in New York City, is a live public access show that uses handmade production style to critique commercial media. Deep Dish, started in 1986, is a hub linking low budget videomakers to public access television and satellite. It produced the Gulf Crisis project in 1990-1991 response to the first US-led war in Iraq, aggregating video works from across the US. ACT UP is the acronym for the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, formed in 1987 to fight for legislation and medical support for people with AIDS.