1. Shelly McKenzie, 2013. Getting Physical: The Rise of Fitness Culture in America (Lawrence, KA: University Press of Kansas, 2013): 10. [return to page 1]

2. Shari L. Dworkin and Faye Linda Wachs, Body Panic: Gender, Health, and the Selling of Fitness (New York: New York University Press, 2009): 71.

3. The organization American Fitness Professionals and Associates was founded in 1994, but personal trainers are not unionized or organized systematically, a telling feature of how this career already emerged under a neoliberal framework. See http://www.afpafitness.com/afpa-mission-and-education

4. Jesper Andreasson and Thomas Johansson, The Global Gym: Gender, Health, and Pedagogies (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014): 13.

5. Logan Hill, “Building a Bigger Action Hero,” Men’s Journal, 1 May 2014.

6. Roberta Sassatelli, Fitness Culture: Gyms and the Commercialisation of Discipline and Fun (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2011).

7. See Jennifer Smith Maguire, “Fit and flexible: The fitness industry, personal trainers and emotional service labor.” Sociology of Sport Journal 18 (2001): 379– 402; Jennifer Smith Maguire, “The personal is professional: Personal trainers as a case study of cultural intermediaries.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 11.2 (2008): 211-229.

8. P. Jain, “Fitness secrets of Bollywood stars.” Men’s Health India, 1 November 2010.

9. Raymond Williams, “Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory.” New Left Review 1.82 (1973): 6.

10. McKenzie, Getting Physical, 10.

11. Theodor Adorno, The Stars Down to Earth (New York: Routledge, 1994 [1953]): 103.

12. Karl Marx, “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844,” In The Marx and Engels Reader, edited by Robert C. Tucker. (New York: WW Norton and Company, 1978 [1844]): 74.

13. Susan Willis, A Primer for Daily Life (New York: Routledge, 1991): 57.

14. Sohail Al-Jamea, “A Workout at Work.” The Washington Post, 6 September 2011.

15. This summary is adapted from the discussion of neoliberalism pursued by Jeremy Gilbert, “What Kind of Thing is ‘Neoliberalism’?” New Formations 80 (2013): 7-22.

16. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality Volume 1 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978): 139.

17. Foucault, The History of Sexuality, 141.

18. Foucault, The History of Sexuality, 145.

19. Walter W. Powell and Kaisa Snellman, “The Knowledge Economy,” Annual Review of Sociology 30 (2004): 199-220.

20. Judith Butler, Gender Trouble (New York: Routledge, 2011): 6.

21. Foucault, The History of Sexuality, 148.

22. Stuart Hall, “The Problem of Ideology: Marxism Without Guarantees,” In Stuart Hall: Critical Dialogues in Cultural Studies, edited by David Morley and Kuan-Hsing Chen (London: Routledge, 1996 [1986]): 44.

23. Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals (New York: Vintage Books, 1989 [1887]): 77.

24. Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, 77.

25. Valentin N. Voloshinov, Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986 [1929]): 23.

26. For more on this, see Juan Llamas-Rodriguez, “Working Out as Creative Labor, or the Building of the Male Superhero’s Body,” in Arrow and Superhero Television, edited by Cory Barker, James Iaccino, Myc Wiatrowski (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2017): 61-77.

27. Warner Bros. Pictures, “Tarzan Challenge,” YouTube, May 23, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5L4-w9WJTnM [return to page 27]

28. Heather Addison pursues a similar argument about the implication of the entertainment industry in selling ideal bodies through more avenues than just its audiovisual materials. See Heather Addison, Hollywood and the Rise of Physical Culture (New York: Routledge, 2003).

29. Andreassson and Johansson, The Global Gym, 141.

30. Richard Dyer, White (London: Routledge, 1993): 148-150.

31. Cross Fit for Jesus by The Kloons can be seen at www.youtube.com/watch?v=1q31CCDVdas

32. Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, 162.

33. Aihwa Ong, Neoliberalism as exception: Mutations in citizenship and sovereignty (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006): 6.

34. Matthew Crawford, Shop Class as Soulcraft: An Inquiry Into the Value of Work (New York: Penguin, 2009): 17.

35. Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, 45.

36. Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, 45.

37. Dyer, White, 10.